Jameel Kermalli (United States)
SAY, ‘WHO IS THE LORD OF THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH?’ SAY, ‘ALLAH!’ SAY, ‘HAVE YOU THEN TAKEN OTHERS BESIDES HIM FOR GUARDIANS, WHO HAVE NO CONTROL OVER THEIR OWN BENEFIT OR HARM?’ SAY, ‘ARE THE BLIND ONE AND THE SEER EQUAL? ARE DARKNESS AND LIGHT EQUAL?’ HAVE THEY SET UP FOR ALLAH PARTNERS WHO HAVE CREATED LIKE HIS CREATION, SO THAT THE CREATIONS SEEMED CONFUSABLE TO THEM? SAY, ‘ALLAH IS THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS, AND HE IS THE ONE AND THE ALL-PARAMOUNT.’
[110:1] When there comes the help of Allah and the victory,
And you see men entering the religion of Allah in companies,
Then celebrate the praise of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness; surely He is
oft-returning (to mercy).P
BECAUSE ALLAH IS A PERFECT CREATOR.
BECAUSE EVEN NON-MUSLIMS FOLLOW ISLAMIC WAY OF LIFE.
BECAUSE NO-ONE CAN TOP THE INFALLIBLE A.S.
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Hujjatul Islam Muhammad Baig
If God sent a religion, how would people who do not know of the religion believe in it? What means did God put in the human beings by which they can decide right from wrong? Surely the religion was not revealed to the whole of humanity at once. It must have started from one point. How would others know of it and more so accept it and believe in it? What is that one faculty that is shared by all human beings by which a message can be analyzed and determined to be right?
The answer is quite simple; it is the human mind and the faculty of reasoning. It is the mind that helps us judge things and decides between right and wrong in every matter of our lives. The word of God, if it is to be transferred to other people who are foreign to it, must conform to the faculty of reasoning that God put in all of us. This is why in Islam faith in God is not the outcome of dogmas and doctrine but rather the product of reasoning and deep scrutiny of revelation.
ONE CAN WRITE AN ENTIRE BOOK ON THIS. BUT THREE MAIN AREAS OF DISCUSSIONS.
IN DUA KUMAYL, WE SAY – O ALLAH! I BESEECH THEE BY THY MERCY WHICH ENCOMPASSES ALL THINGS, AND BY THY POWER BY WHICH THOU OVERCOMETH ALL THINGS, AND SUBMIT TO IT ALL THINGS AND HUMBLE BEFORE IT ALL THINGS AND BY THY MIGHT BY WHICH THOU HAST CONQUERED ALL THINGS, AND BY THY MAJESTY AGAINST WHICH NOTHING CAN STAND UP, AND BY THY GRANDEUR WHICH PREVAILS UPON ALL THINGS AND BY THY AUTHORITY WHICH IS EXERCISED OVER ALL THINGS, AND BY THY OWN SELF THAT SHALL ENDURE FOREVER AFTER ALL THINGS HAVE VANISHED, AND BY THY NAMES WHICH MANIFEST THY POWER OVER ALL THINGS, AND BY THY KNOWLEDGE WHICH PERVADES ALL THINGS, AND BY THE LIGHT OF THY COUNTENANCE WHICH ILLUMINATES EVERYTHING…
IN DUA ABU HAMZA THUMALI WE SAY TO ALLAH, AND YOU BESTOW YOUR MERCY ON WHOMEVER YOU WISH, WITH WHATEVER YOU WISH, AND HOWEVER YOU WISH, YOU ARE NEVER QUESTIONED ABOUT YOUR DOINGS, NEITHER IS THERE ANY STRUGGLE IN YOUR KINGDOM, NOR IS THERE ANY PARTNERSHIP IN YOUR COMMAND, OR CONFLICT IN YOUR JUDGMENT…
IN DUA KUMAYL WE SAY TO ALLAH, WHO IS THERE, WORTHY OF WORSHIP, BESIDES YOU? … (I) humble before Your lordship? …And these (Your displeasures) cannot be withstood by the heavens and the earth…
IN DUA ABU HAMZA THUMALI WE SAY TO ALLAH …I AM NOT FIGHTING YOU AGAINST YOUR LORDSHIP…I swear with Your exalted might, O’ Master that if You rebuked me, I would not depart from Your door, and I won’t cease to compliment You, since I have indeed come to grasp the knowledge of Your generosity and benevolence. And You are the doer of whatever You desire, You punish whomever You wish, with whatever You wish and however You wish, and You bestow Your mercy on whomever You wish, with whatever You wish, and however You wish, I swear with Your exalted might, O’ Master, that if You rebuked me, I would not depart from Your door and I won’t cease to compliment. YOU ARE NEVER QUESTIONED ABOUT YOUR DOINGS, NEITHER IS THERE ANY STRUGGLE IN YOUR KINGDOM, NOR IS THERE ANY PARTNERSHIP IN YOUR COMMAND OR CONFLICT IN YOUR JUDGMENT AND NO ONE CAN OPPOSE YOU IN YOUR DISPOSITION OF AFFAIRS AND NO ONE CAN OPPOSE YOU IN YOUR DISPOSITION OF AFFAIRS. TO YOU BELONGS ALL OF THE CREATION AND COMMAND… and I take refuge through believing in Your unity, and through my certainty of knowledge about You, that indeed I have no other god or lord but You, only You; there is no partner for You.
by Dr. Mehdi Golshani in ‘Values and Ethical Issues in Science and Technology: A Muslim Perspective’
Science attempts at a systematic study of nature by recourse to observation, experiment, and reasoning. Ethics, in the sense used here, concerns rules of conduct, the so-called moral values. The fundamental question that confronts us is whether these two spheres of human concern are independent of each other or are interrelated; and in the latter case, what is the nature of their relationship?
Nevertheless, we also believe that scientists cannot ignore ethical issues, and science and ethics are related both at the metaphysical and practical levels, as will be argued in the following section. Thus, the claim for moral neutrality in scientific research and its applications is simply an illusion.
At the practical level, science and ethics are interrelated for the following reasons:Science is a goal-directed enterprise. Thus, it must include some of those values that give direction to both its goals and the means of achieving them. For example, commitment to truth is a value which is essential to the enterprise of science. In the words of Karl Popper. “The fact that science cannot make any pronouncement about ethical principles has been misinterpreted as indicating that there are no such principles, while in fact, the search for truth presupposes ethics”. Furthermore, science is an important means for obtaining socially-valued goals like knowledge and power.
2. The scientific enterprise involves value-judgments. Here are a few important instances:
(a) Codes of conduct are involved in the practice of science which, inter alia, function as a quality control mechanism and ensure trust in science. These consist of honesty, openness, impartiality integrity, etc. There is a consensus in the
(b) Value-judgements also permeate scientific practice at the level of discovery, and may change a scientist’s line of research.
(c) Value-judgements play a very important role in the assessment and choice of theories. Since Scientific theories arc appraised on the basis of certain criteria which are value-laden, Thomas Kuhn counts the following as characteristics of a good scientific theory: predictive accuracy, internal and external consistency, broadness of scope, simplicity (that is, unifying power) and fruitfulness One could also add other criteria such as social utility and beauty. These criteria, as Kuhn and McMullin8 have emphasized, operates as values, “epistemic values” in McMullin’s terminology. As Kuhn put it: The criteria of choice function not as rules, which determine the choice, but as values which in?uence it. Two men deeply committed to the same values, may nevertheless, in particular situations, make different choices, as in fact, they do. Thus, for example, the disagreement between Einstein and Bohr about Quantum theory was rooted in the fact that they had different views about what a “good” theory is expected to accomplish.
(d) Value-judgement enter into decision-making concerning the applications of science and technology. Scientific discoveries and technological innovations often lead to important social, moral and political consequences. Thus, as a member of a society, a scientist should not ignore the consequences of his or her research or teaching. The destructive consequences of science and technology during the last century was the result of the separation of facts from values and the indifference of some scientists to the consequences of their scientific finding or technological innovations. The manufacturing of chemical/biological and nuclear weapons could be cited as an example. The progress of science during the last century has raised serious ethical issues about experiments involving human or animal subjects or public safety. To humanize applied science and technology, one needs to take into account ethical considerations, especially when one is dealing with the kind of research that affects humankind or the environment. This is because scientific and technological progress cannot, by itself, hold the societies intact; its accomplishment requires paying due attention to the moral dimension of the scientific activity.
3. Science has become increasingly interlocked with business, industry and political goals. This can lead to moral con?icts between proper scientific goals and business values or government priorities, which are oriented to political and economic interests.
4. Those who preach value-neutrality of science confuse the findings of science with its applications. Science is a double-edged sword, where it could be used to secure human welfare, or it could be used for destructive purposes. Something outside of science is needed to lead scientists to use their science for good causes.
5. To secure human welfare in all human activities, including scientific, a strong sense of responsibility on the part of the persons concerned is essential. Science cannot provide this. Moral responsibility comes from elsewhere, chie?y from religious belief.