Friday Sermon: What are the different narratives about Prophet Jesus (a)?

Contributed by The Muslim Vibe

In this part we will introduce the idea that the way a historical individual is remembered evolves with time. That is to say the narrative around a person may change, and what is popularly known about him can shift both with time and space. This is a particular study elucidated on by scholars by Bart D. Ehram in Jesus Before The Gospels and Barry Schwartz in Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory.

The Qur’an in particular seeks to ground the narrative of the [prophetic] individuals it refers to. This is because one of its reasons of revelation was to correct the narratives that had been falsified over time and also to ensure it preserves the accurate understanding of these great individuals going forward. The following verses mention not only that we should remember certain personalities by recalling their stories but also that they provide characteristics that root their narrative around its pivot.

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19:51 And remember through this divine writ, Moses. Behold, he was a chosen one, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet.

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19:54 And remember through this divine writ, Ishmael. Behold, he was always true to his promise, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet.

????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????
19:56 And remember through this divine writ, Idris. Behold, he was a man of truth, a prophet.

????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????????
19:16 And remember through this divine writ, Mary. Lo! She withdrew from her family to an eastern place.

????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????
19:41 And remember to mind, through this divine writ, Abraham. Behold, he was a man of truth, a prophet.

As you can see the mentioning of the figure is immediately followed with a particular set of descriptions. Why did the Qur’an link Prophet Ismail (a) with his truthfulness? Because that was a central aspect to his mission and response to his time, central to his eternal legacy. Similarly why mention Lady Maryam (a) as withdrawing from her family for servitude of God? Because though against the norm of her time and some characteristic gender norms, Lady Maryam’s fulfilment of her potential could not be proscribed by culture, also something central to her eternal legacy.

Although the Qur’an seeks to ground the narrative, the way people remember an individual indeed evolves. That may be down to the availability and accessibility of information on that person, or how a culture evolves its ethics or needs and so engages in a collective ‘historical revisionism’.

Bart Ehram provides examples of Abraham Lincoln and Christopher Columbus. The former has come to be known as the great champion of equality and freeing of slaves. Whereas historically there was a long period when he demonstrated great racism. Lincoln believed ‘blacks’ could not serve on jury’s or should be deported to colonies. In a debate with Stephen A. Douglas he said:

“I am not, nor ever have been, in favour of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races. There is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of equality.”

Why is Lincoln so well known for championing equality but less known for such earlier beliefs? Because as abolitionists and civil rights movements grew it projected Lincoln’s later beliefs only as evidence of his support ignoring other elements of his personality. This is what would become known of him.

The same evolution, Ehram points out, is how people ‘remember’ Christopher Columbus. Having a day named after him, he was initially celebrated for his ‘finding’ the Americas. As the true history of the United States was written, people have come to realise the terrorism Columbus performed. He is no longer celebrated but loathed. This is because colonisation is now also loathed and so what people remember of Columbus has changed too. James Loewen states:

“Columbus introduced two phenomena: the taking of land, wealth, and labor from indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere, and the transatlantic slave trade.”

The same shift in remembering can be said for so many people: Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Tony Blair and so on.

How then is Jesus (a) remembered by Christians? Indeed this too has changed with time and space. What the earliest Christians knew of, championed and celebrated is very particular. Once the Gospels were written some 60 to 100 years after Jesus (a), the stories of Jesus shifted. This occurred again with non-canonical books being compiled and from the events at The First Council of Nicea, with the first consensus on Christianity occurring in 325 AD.

Of course today, the way Jesus (a) is remembered, celebrated, emphasised, and transmitted is very different to all those previous periods. How Jesus was remembered and his earliest known narratives is what this series will look at.

How do Muslims ‘remember’ and speak of Prophet Isa (a)? Let us mention three narrations that ‘ground’ the Muslim understanding of who Jesus (a) was:

1) Jesus (a) said: “My servant is my hands and my mount is my feet; my bed is the earth and my pillow, a stone; my blanket in the winter is the east of the earth and my lamp in the night is the moon; my stew is hunger and my motto is fear; my clothing is wool and my fruit and my basil is what grows from the earth for the wild beasts and cattle.

I sleep while I have nothing and I rise while I have nothing, and yet there is no one on earth more wealthy than I.”

2) One of the Imams is reported to have said: “It was said to Jesus the son of Mary (‘a), ‘How did you begin the morning, O Spirit of Allah?’ He said, ‘I began the morning with my Lord, the Blessed and Supreme, above me and the fire (of hell) before me and death in pursuit of me. I have not obtained that for which I wished and I cannot keep away the things I hate. So who of the poor is more poor than I?’”

3) Jesus (‘a) said to the disciples: “Be satisfied with a little of the world, while your religion is safe, likewise the people of this world are satisfied with a little of the religion, while their world is safe; love Allah by being far from them, and make Allah satisfied by being angry with them.”

The disciples said, “O spirit of Allah, so with whom should we keep company?” He said, “He the sight of whom reminds you of Allah, his speech increases your knowledge and his action makes you desirous of the other world.”

In this part we will introduce the idea that the way a historical individual is remembered evolves with time. That is to say the narrative around a person may change, and what is popularly known about him can shift both with time and space. This is a particular study elucidated on by scholars by Bart D. Ehram in Jesus Before The Gospels and Barry Schwartz in Abraham Lincoln and the Forge of National Memory.

The Qur’an in particular seeks to ground the narrative of the [prophetic] individuals it refers to. This is because one of its reasons of revelation was to correct the narratives that had been falsified over time and also to ensure it preserves the accurate understanding of these great individuals going forward. The following verses mention not only that we should remember certain personalities by recalling their stories but also that they provide characteristics that root their narrative around its pivot.

????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
19:51 And remember through this divine writ, Moses. Behold, he was a chosen one, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet.

????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????
19:54 And remember through this divine writ, Ishmael. Behold, he was always true to his promise, and was an apostle [of God], a prophet.

????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????
19:56 And remember through this divine writ, Idris. Behold, he was a man of truth, a prophet.

????????? ??? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????????
19:16 And remember through this divine writ, Mary. Lo! She withdrew from her family to an eastern place.

????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????
19:41 And remember to mind, through this divine writ, Abraham. Behold, he was a man of truth, a prophet.

As you can see the mentioning of the figure is immediately followed with a particular set of descriptions. Why did the Qur’an link Prophet Ismail (a) with his truthfulness? Because that was a central aspect to his mission and response to his time, central to his eternal legacy. Similarly why mention Lady Maryam (a) as withdrawing from her family for servitude of God? Because though against the norm of her time and some characteristic gender norms, Lady Maryam’s fulfilment of her potential could not be proscribed by culture, also something central to her eternal legacy.

Although the Qur’an seeks to ground the narrative, the way people remember an individual indeed evolves. That may be down to the availability and accessibility of information on that person, or how a culture evolves its ethics or needs and so engages in a collective ‘historical revisionism’.

Bart Ehram provides examples of Abraham Lincoln and Christopher Columbus. The former has come to be known as the great champion of equality and freeing of slaves. Whereas historically there was a long period when he demonstrated great racism. Lincoln believed ‘blacks’ could not serve on jury’s or should be deported to colonies. In a debate with Stephen A. Douglas he said:

“I am not, nor ever have been, in favour of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races. There is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of equality.”

Why is Lincoln so well known for championing equality but less known for such earlier beliefs? Because as abolitionists and civil rights movements grew it projected Lincoln’s later beliefs only as evidence of his support ignoring other elements of his personality. This is what would become known of him.

The same evolution, Ehram points out, is how people ‘remember’ Christopher Columbus. Having a day named after him, he was initially celebrated for his ‘finding’ the Americas. As the true history of the United States was written, people have come to realise the terrorism Columbus performed. He is no longer celebrated but loathed. This is because colonisation is now also loathed and so what people remember of Columbus has changed too. James Loewen states:

“Columbus introduced two phenomena: the taking of land, wealth, and labor from indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere, and the transatlantic slave trade.”

The same shift in remembering can be said for so many people: Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King, Tony Blair and so on.

How then is Jesus (a) remembered by Christians? Indeed this too has changed with time and space. What the earliest Christians knew of, championed and celebrated is very particular. Once the Gospels were written some 60 to 100 years after Jesus (a), the stories of Jesus shifted. This occurred again with non-canonical books being compiled and from the events at The First Council of Nicea, with the first consensus on Christianity occurring in 325 AD.

Of course today, the way Jesus (a) is remembered, celebrated, emphasised, and transmitted is very different to all those previous periods. How Jesus was remembered and his earliest known narratives is what this series will look at.

How do Muslims ‘remember’ and speak of Prophet Isa (a)? Let us mention three narrations that ‘ground’ the Muslim understanding of who Jesus (a) was:

1) Jesus (a) said: “My servant is my hands and my mount is my feet; my bed is the earth and my pillow, a stone; my blanket in the winter is the east of the earth and my lamp in the night is the moon; my stew is hunger and my motto is fear; my clothing is wool and my fruit and my basil is what grows from the earth for the wild beasts and cattle.

I sleep while I have nothing and I rise while I have nothing, and yet there is no one on earth more wealthy than I.”

2) One of the Imams is reported to have said: “It was said to Jesus the son of Mary (‘a), ‘How did you begin the morning, O Spirit of Allah?’ He said, ‘I began the morning with my Lord, the Blessed and Supreme, above me and the fire (of hell) before me and death in pursuit of me. I have not obtained that for which I wished and I cannot keep away the things I hate. So who of the poor is more poor than I?’”

3) Jesus (‘a) said to the disciples: “Be satisfied with a little of the world, while your religion is safe, likewise the people of this world are satisfied with a little of the religion, while their world is safe; love Allah by being far from them, and make Allah satisfied by being angry with them.”

The disciples said, “O spirit of Allah, so with whom should we keep company?” He said, “He the sight of whom reminds you of Allah, his speech increases your knowledge and his action makes you desirous of the other world.”

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My Logbook to Barzakh, Part 5

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zakat in Shi‘a Fiqh – Part four

By Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi (Toronto, Canada)

Final Comments


By looking at the tone of the article published in Federation Samachar and the conclusions that some readers have derived, it is necessary to make the following remarks:
First of all, I am really surprised that when it comes to their personal issues, people in our community always seek “expert advice;” but when it comes to religious issues, it becomes a plain field for everyone to make their decisions and even allow themselves to judge others’ motivations and think of it as “sazish/conspiracy” by the ‘ulama when they don’t like what they hear! It is implied that the majority of our jurists were sayyids, therefore they promote khums and ignore zakat!

Such people don’t realize that such thoughts eventually lead to accusing the Prophet of Islam himself of promoting his descendants! On this judgmental attitude, even the publishers are responsible for allowing this article to be published without getting it checked with the experts in the field for accuracy or at least allowing a response to it on the same issue.

Secondly, the reason why religious speakers talk more about some issues and less about some other issues has nothing to do with the so-called “sazish.” It all depends on what is relevant to the people in that time and area. Khoja community at large –in Africa and the West– are not in agriculture or raising cattle or in keeping gold/silver coins, and therefore these issues are not discussed that frequently or in detail just as judiciary matters or rules of the minor jihad are not discussed because they are not relevant to the community in these parts of the world.
The same can be said about discussion on khums. Khums is wajib on seven items but even when I wrote the book on that subject, I only dealt with two of the seven items. The others items (mines & minerals; precious stones obtained from sea by diving; treasures; land that a dhimmi kafir buys from a Muslim; the spoils of war) have not been discussed. Why? Those items were not discussed simply because they are not relevant to our times and our locations.

Finally, what is even more disturbing is a trend seen among some of those who like to promote a good cause, they always try to contrast it with something else even though the two would be unrelated. Obvious examples that come to mind of such artificial contrast between issues are niyaz versus charity, ‘azadari versus namaz, khums versus zakat, rituals versus socio-political activism. One can always promote charity without attacking niyaz; stopping niyaz is not going to divert that money towards the poor relief. One can always encourage the obligation of doing namaz without putting down ‘azadari; instead of creating that contrast, use ‘azadari to promote namaz. One can always urge people to give more in charity without putting down khums; highlight the importance of giving sadaqa which has been greatly emphasized in Islam and by the Ahlul Bayt.

One can always impress upon people the importance of participation in socio-political issues without putting down rituals. By creating unnecessary tension or contrast between two unrelated issues, one achieves nothing but failure in the actual cause that he is promoting.
However, this mentality is not new; it reminds me of an interesting discussion during the reign of ‘Umar ibn Khattab. Someone mentioned to ‘Umar the issue of the excess of the ornaments that were donated for the Ka‘bah and proposed that he should use those ornaments for financing the needs of the Muslim army. “What would the Ka‘bah do with the ornaments?” Indeed a very progressive idea! ‘Umar liked this idea, but then he turned to Imam ‘Ali and asked his opinion on it. Imam ‘Ali (a.s.) said: “When the Qur’an descended upon the Prophet (s.a.w.), the wealth was of four types:

  1. The property of the Muslims which he distributed among the heirs according to the fixed shares [in the
    Qur’an].
  2. The tax (fay’) which he distributed among those who were deserving of it.
  3. The khums which Allah has fixed the way of its disposal.
  4. The charities (Sadaqat) whose disposal also was fixed by Allah.
    “The ornaments of the Ka‘bah did exist in those days but Allah left them as they were, and He did not leave them out of omission nor were they unknown to Him. Therefore, you should leave them where Allah and His Messenger have placed them.” ‘Umar left the ornaments of Ka‘bah as they were and said to Imam ‘Ali: “If it had not been for you, we would have been humiliated.”

Let us not exercise the ijtihad of ignorance in religious matters and not impose our views on the views of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and his Ahlul Bayt (a.s.). Always remember the message of Almighty Allah: O you who believe! Do not venture ahead of Allah and His Messenger,
and be wary of Allah. Indeed Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
O you who believe! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak aloud to him as you shout to one another, lest your good deeds should become futile while you are unaware of it.
(49:1-2)

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Tarbiat e Aulad – Lesson 8

Dr. Mirza Abbas Ali Khoyee (Pakistan)

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My Logbook to Barzakh, Part 4

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